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All About Black Pepper | Know Your Fine Spice Kali Mirch (Piper nigrum)

All About Black pepper (काली मिर्च) | Know Your Fine Spice Kali mirch (Piper nigrum)

Know more about Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum)

Health benefits of black pepper or kali mirch

Black Pepper also known as “The King of Spices” is a commonly & widely used spice used in cuisines world over.

It’s indigenous to the rain forests of Kerala is also known as “the Black Gold”. It is still dried in direct sunlight.

The fruit or berries in the dried stage are known as peppercorns and that’s used as a spice, medicine and seasoning. After drying it’s consumed in the raw form by grinding peppercorns.

It has a sharp and mildly spicy flavour that goes well with many dishes. Ground, dried, and cooked peppercorns have been used since antiquity, both for flavour and as a traditional medicine.

Traditional Ayurvedic medicine has been using black pepper for thousands of years due to its high concentration of potent, beneficial plant compounds.

Black pepper is native to present-day Kerala, a state on the southwestern coast of India, and is extensively cultivated there and in other tropical regions.

What are the vernacular names for black pepper?

The names of black pepper or kali mirch in international languages are given below.

Indian Languages International Languages
Hindi: Kali mirch (काली मिर्च), Gol mirch (गोल मिर्च), Gulki (गुलकि)
Bengali: Golmorich (গোল মরিচ)
Gujarati:
Mari (મરી)
Kannada: Menasu (ಮೆಣಸು)
Kashmiri:
Marts (مرژ)
Malayalam
: Kurumulagu (കുരുമുളക്), Yavanapriyam (യവനപ്രിയം)
Manipuri: Golmorok (ꯒꯣꯜꯃꯣꯔꯣꯛ)
Marathi: Mire (मिरे)
Mizo: Thing hmarcha
Oriya: Gola maricha (ଗୋଲମରୀଚ), Maricha (ମରୀଚ)
Punjabi:
Kali mirch (ਕਾਲੀ ਮਿਰਚ)
Sanskrit:
Marica (मारीच), Vella (वेल्ल), Krishnadi (कृष्णादी)
Tamil:
Milagu (மிளகு), Yavanappiriyam (யவனப்பிரிதம்)
Telugu:
Miriyalu (మిరియాలు), Miriyamu (మిరియము)
Latin (Botanical): Piper nigrum
Arabic: Fulful (فُلْفُل), Filfil (فِلْفِل)
Bulgarian: Piper (Пипер), Pipereni zurna (Пиперени зърна)
Chinese:
Wuh jiu (胡椒)
Dutch:
Peper
Farsi: Felfel (فلفل)
French:
Poivre
German: Pfeffer
Greek: Piperi (Πιπέρι), Koino piperi (Κοινό πιπέρι)
Italian: Pepe
Japanese: Koshō (胡椒), Peppa (ペッパー)
Portuguese: Pimenta, Pimenta-do-reino, Pimenta-da-índia
Russian: Perets (Перец)
Spanish:
Pimienta
Swedish
: Peppar
Turkish: Karabiber
Uzbek: Murch (Мурч)

What exactly is black pepper?

Get to know more about Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum)

Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) or Kali mirch (Hindi: काली मिर्च) comes from black peppercorns that are the fruits of a flowering vine in the Piperaceae family.

The green, wide-leafed vines grow long tendrils where cylindrical clusters of the berries ripen. It’s fruits are small containing a thin skin, very little actual fruit, and single large seed.

The fruits are picked at varying degrees of ripeness depending on the strength and type of pepper desired and then processed accordingly.

Pepper is uni­que in the spice universe as the pepper fruits are marketed in four different versions: They can be processed to give black, white, green and red peppercorns.

By choosing time of harvest and post­processing method carefully, all four types could, in principle, be produced from the same pepper plant.

Black pepper is the fruits of pepper harvested unripe but not far from ripeness, and dried at moder­ately elevated tempera­ture.

A typical scheme is plucking the whole pepper spike in the moment when the very first berry starts turning red and storing the berries overnight at room temperature.

In some places, the berries are dipped into boiling water to provide a quick surface disinfection.

Under these circumstances, fermentation takes place, and the formerly green pepper fruits turn black, similar to the fermentation of tea leaves.

With the next day, the drying procedure starts, still often dried in direct sunlight without the help of electric dehydrators. Black pepper is produced in all pepper producing countries.

What is the nutritional value of black pepper?

Find out about the nutritional value of black pepper or kali mirch (Piper nigrum)

Black Pepper packs a lot of nutrients. Calcium, iron, manganese, and other vitamins and minerals are found in pepper. Such elementary composition clearly signifies the health benefits of kali mirch.

One teaspoon of ground pepper contains only 5 calories, 1 g of carbohydrate (half of which is fiber), and negligible fat and protein.

One teaspoon of pepper also contains 8.7 mg calcium (1% of the daily value), 0.6 mg iron (3% of the daily value), 0.1 mg manganese (6% of the daily value), & 3.3 mcg vitamin K (4% of the daily value).

What is the chemical composition of a black pepper or kali mirch?

Know and understand about chemical composition of a black pepper or kali mirch (Piper nigrum)

Black and white peppers contain a bioactive compound named piperine, also found in other members of the pepper family (Piperaceae), including long pepper (Piper longum).

Piperine is the most abundant and active alkaloid in pepper. The main volatile flavour compounds in black pepper are terpenes, and black pepper oils contain nitrogen-containing compounds.

Key odorants of black pepper are α- and β-pinene, myrcene, α-phellandrene, limonene, linalool, methyl propanal, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, butyric acid and 3-methylbutyric acid.

Compounds 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine are responsible for the musty and mouldy off-flavour in black pepper.

What is the history of black pepper or kali mirch?

Know more about the origins & the story behind black pepper or kali mirch (Piper nigrum)

Black pepper is native to the Malabar Coast of India and is one of the earliest spices known. It has has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE.

J. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia, its most important source was India, particularly the Chera dynasty, in what is now the state of Kerala.

The lost ancient port city of Muziris in Kerala, famous for exporting black pepper and various other spices, is mentioned in a number of classical historical sources.

The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper, the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum.

The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just piper. In fact, the popularity of long pepper did not entirely decline until the discovery of the New World and of chilli peppers.

Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II, placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.

Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the fourth century BCE, though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford.

By the time of the early Roman Empire, especially after Rome’s conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE, open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea direct to Chera dynasty run Malabar Coast was near routine.

Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Pliny the Elder’s Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: “Long pepper … is 15 denarii per pound, while that of white pepper is seven, and of black, four.”

Pliny also complains, “There is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of 50 million sesterces”, and further moralizes on pepper.

Pliny does not state whether the 50 million was the actual amount of money that found its way to India or the total retail cost of the items in Rome, &, elsewhere, he cites a figure of 100 million sesterces.

Black pepper was a well-known and widespread, if expensive, seasoning in the Roman Empire.

Apicius’ De re coquinaria, a third-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the first century CE, includes pepper in a majority of its recipes.

Edward Gibbon wrote, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, that pepper was “a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery”.

Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency.

What is the difference between types of peppercorns?

What is the difference between black, white, red & green peppercorns?

What’s the difference between black and red? Is it worth buying white or green when a recipe for calls for it, or can you get by with what you already have at home?

Black pepper comes from the vine known as piper nigrum, and so do green, red and white peppercorns which are different stages of processing the berries. Let’s find out more.

Black peppercorns

Black peppercorns are cooked (or boiled) green peppercorns left out to dry. They have the strongest, most pungent flavour. Freshly ground, they’re the ideal seasoning for almost anything.

White Peppercorns

White peppercorns are black peppercorns whose skins have been removed. They have both a fiery, but also less pungent taste, and are good for light-colored sauces and foods.

Green Peppercorns

Green peppercorns are pepper in its purest state, freshly plucked from the Piper nigrum vine when not yet ripe. Since they are essentially a fresh fruit, green peppercorns have a terribly short shelf life.

Red Peppercorns

Green peppercorns, left to fully ripen on the vine, turn a brilliant shade of red. It’s rare to find red peppercorns; they’re either dried for the black coat, or then shelled to make white peppercorns.

Types of pepper (piper nigrum) – red pepper, green pepper, white pepper, black pepper

What is the relation between black pepper and turmeric?

How do black pepper and turmeric complement one another?

In Ayurveda, Black Pepper is a common herb. It is known to be a hot, pungent herb that stimulates agni, or digestive fire, by supporting the secretion of fluids & blood circulation in the GI tract.

Black Pepper’s most active constituent, Piperine, has been found to support the absorption of other herbs, specifically the Curcumins found in Turmeric, as well as Resveratrol.

One study found that combining Turmeric and Black Pepper increased the bioavailability of Turmeric by 154% versus Turmeric alone.

Piperine appears to support the inter-cellular permeability and uptake of Curcumins. This active component works by supporting gastrointestinal transit, which promotes absorption.

What are the uses of black pepper or kali mirch?

How are black pepper or kali mirch (Piper nigrum) used?

  • Black pepper plants are used to produce black, white and green pepper. Black pepper is the product of drying the fruit to produce the familiar black peppercorns.
  • Black pepper is one of the most versatile spices used in virtually in all kinds of savoury cooking.
  • The amino acids contained by black pepper, works for enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients.
  • Pepper has many advantages over most synthetic insecticides in that it does not contaminate groundwater, harm human or other animals and insects do not develop resistance to it.
  • Black pepper is a natural antibacterial agent, working against a number of fungus and bacterial infections.
  • Black pepper repels ants because it contains the ant repellent capsaicin. Sprinkle some black pepper on the plants.

What does black pepper taste like?

What is the taste of black pepper or kali mirch?

Black pepper has a penetrating and aromatic bouquet. Its taste is hot, biting, and very pungent.

It can be elaborated as fruity to grassy to citrus and piney with a certain bright freshness. The aroma is complex with a sweet and balanced flavour.

How many black pepper or kali mirch should I use?

What is the the recommended quantity of Black pepper or Kali mirch for a day?

The definition of “too much” of anything is the amount that harms you. So, yes, too much black pepper (or anything else) is likely to  be harmful.

To be on a safer side, a person can consume 2 to 4 teaspoons of black pepper per day based on their body condition.

Scientific evidence to date suggests that black pepper used the way most of us do -sprinkled or ground onto food – doesn’t pose any health risks.

What are the ayurvedic properties of black pepper or kali mirch?

Information about ayurvedic details of Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum).

According to Ayurvedic point of view, the pungency and heating property of black pepper help in proper digestion and metabolism of food.

Rasa (Taste): Katu (Pungent)
Guna (Qualities): Laghu (Lightness), Teekshna (Strong, Piercing), Sookshma (Penetrating)
Veerya (Potency): Ushna (Hot)
Vipaka (Taste conversion after digestion): Katu (Pungent)
Karma (Effect on Tridosha): Balances kapha and vata doshas in the body.

What can I use Black pepper for?

Learn how to use Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum) in your food & beverages.

Ground Black pepper add spicy depth to various recipes. As a culinary spice, black pepper impart a strong aroma and pungent taste that have enhanced the human enjoyment of many foods in cuisines all over the world.

Black peppercorns or Kali Mirch is a versatile ingredient that can be added to a variety of recipes, including meats, fish, eggs, salads, and soups. It’s available at most grocery stores.

  1. As a flavouring spice – Use black pepper as an ingredient in recipes to add flavour and spice to meats, fish, vegetables, salads & salad dressings, soups, stir-fries, pasta, and more.
  2. With eggs & fruit – You can also add a dash of black pepper to scrambled eggs, avocado toast, fruit, and dipping sauces for a spicy kick. Try adding some black pepper to strawberries and pineapple for a sharper taste.
  3. As an ingredient for marinades – add it to your marinade and brush it over fish, meat, or vegetables before cooking for a flavorful dish.
  4. As a seasoning – Black pepper can be added to almost any savoury dish imaginable. It can also be added to sweet biscuits and cakes in order to spice them up and add a quirky twist. It goes very well with fried eggs and omelette.

Black peppercorns are often used to marinate chicken, fish, and meat. They are also used in the preparation of soups, barbecue sauces & pickling.

Overall, black pepper is used to prepare just about every kind of dish, including desserts!

A Few Recipes that Use Black pepper or Kali mirch

How do I prepare black pepper for eating?

Learn how to prepare Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum) for your food & beverages.

When used in modest amounts, black pepper is a subtle, unassuming enhancement for the other flavours in a dish. It can be used freshly ground or as whole black peppercorns.

  • Crush your peppercorns so they’re coarsely ground (in a mortar and pestle) to keep the focus on flavour.
  • Black pepper sticks to a food’s exterior to create a crunchy, spice-packed coating.
  • Coat the meats with crushed peppercorns
  • Add pepper to warm beverages such as chai;
  • Sprinkle some on freshly cut fruit for a spicy kick;
  • Grind some pepper into a bowl of olive oil with balsamic vinegar to create a dipping sauce for bread and vegetables.
  • Season eggs, potatoes and fried fish with pepper powder.
  • Season your cooking oil with whole spices including black peppercorns.
  • Mix pepper with other powdered spices and add to your curry.

Can I use all parts of black pepper ?

What parts of Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum) plant are used for food & beverages.

Black pepper plant is cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When dried, the fruit is known as a peppercorn.

Black pepper comes from the berries of the pepper plant. Black pepper, green pepper, red pepper and white peppercorns are actually the same fruit (Piper nigrum).

How long does black pepper last?

Learn about how long does Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum) last in storage.

Neither whole peppercorns nor ground pepper lasts forever. When packaged both come with a best-by date on the label that is good indicator of how long the spice will retain peak freshness.

If there’s no date on the package or only a packaging date, you should know that whole peppercorns keep quality for about 3 to 4 years, and ground pepper is best for maybe two years.

How do I store black pepper?

Learn about how to store black pepper or kali mirch (Piper nigrum).

Black pepper in all its forms keeps best in a place where it’s away from heat, moisture, and direct sunlight.

Staying away from heat means it shouldn’t be anywhere near the stove . Same thing when it comes to moisture and the sink.

When it comes to sunlight, a dark cabinet or a spice drawer is optimal for retaining the quality of the pepper for longer.

Is there a substitute for Black pepper or Kali mirch?

Learn how to use a substitute for Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum) if unavailable

If the recipe you want to make calls for black pepper but you don’t have any, don’t worry. Here are some best substitutes for black pepper or kali mirch.

Any other pepper product (paprika, cayenne, chilli) can be used to replace the heat, although the flavour isn’t quite there.

A little cumin, mustard, mace, coriander seeds, nutmeg or allspice can help replace the bitterness (that flavour is why black pepper gained its popularity, because it masks the flavour of meat so well).

White pepper or Szechuan peppers (some strong flavour differences like numbing, so them use sparingly) might be another alternative, but doesn’t help if you have a black pepper allergy.

A dash of Tabasco, mustard or horseradish spread liberally, or a good-quality peppery leaf such as mustard or rocket as good substitutes.

Spices like nutmeg, cinnamon, mace, allspice, even cloves or a mix of all of them can also bring about a pepper balance.

Where do I buy Black pepper or Kali mirch from?

Where to Locate Black pepper or Kali mirch (Piper nigrum) in a Grocery Store?

You can purchase black pepper at the grocery store – both powdered and whole peppercorns are usually available in the spice aisles.

Buy black pepper or kali mirch on Amazon: India | USA

What are the health benefits of black pepper ?

Learn more about health benefits of black pepper or kali mirch (Piper nigrum)

Black pepper or kali mirch contains antibacterial, antiviral and anti-cancer activities.

Black pepper releases hydrochloric acid in stomach which helps in cleaning the intestines. It prevents constipation and helps to combat occurrence of common cold.

Black pepper is used for combating skin exfoliation, skin deformation and helps to keep wrinkles at bay.

Read on to find out about the health benefits of black pepper or health benefits of kali mirch:

  1. Health benefits of black peppercorns in cancer prevention – The piperine in black pepper can be credited with the prevention of cancer, and becomes twice as potent when combined with turmeric.
  2. Health benefits of black pepper as an antioxidant – Black pepper has Vitamin C, Vitamin A, flavonoids, carotenes and other antioxidants that help remove harmful free radicals and protect the body from cancers and diseases.
  3. Health benefits of black peppercorns in digestion – Piperine in black pepper, stimulates the stomach to produce more hydrochloric acid, which aids in digesting proteins in our food, thus playing a role of easing digestion.
  4. Health benefits of kali mirch for weight loss – Black pepper contains phytonutrients, which helps break down fat cells, and increases metabolism. When you eat fresh pepper and begin to perspire, that’s the pepper helping your body to get rid of excess water and toxins.
  5. Health benefits of black pepper to help quit smoking – Research shows that puffing on a vapour device using black pepper oil over 3 hours may reduce cigarette cravings and anxiety in men who smoke.
  6. Health benefits of black peppercorns in helping decrease vitiligo – Black pepper extract, as well as the piperine and alkaloid found in pepper, may cause the formation of more melanin. An ointment with pepper extract showed some promise at decreasing vitiligo.
  7. Health benefits of kali mirch in gum problems – Piperine may help reduce inflammation that leads to periodontal or gum disease. One study found that piperine helped to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and TNF-α, both of which are markers of inflammation.
  8. Health benefits of black pepper in lowering blood pressure – Black pepper has been reported to help with a variety of health conditions, and recent studies suggest that extracts from black pepper may help manage blood pressure.
  9. Health benefits of black peppercorns in Diabetes – Many cultures use black peppercorns to help manage diabetes, and recent studies have shown that compounds found in black pepper may help with blood sugar control.
  10. Health benefits of black pepper against a number of maladies – The key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient’s absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality.
Health Benefits of Black Pepper or Kali Mirch
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Black Pepper Spice Rub - For a Perfect Black Pepper Flavour

Black Pepper Spice Rub or Black Peppercorns Spice Rub is great to infuse a depth of flavour when you are doing your meats for a meal. It is a great spice mix for soups as well. A simple spice rub that goes a long way to make your meal super.
Course Spice Powders, Spices
Cuisine American, World
Diet Halal
Keyword Black Pepper, Black Pepper Spice Rub, Black Peppercorns, Chicken Kali Mirch, Spice Rub
Prep Time 2 minutes
Cook Time 5 minutes
Total Time 7 minutes
Servings 4 people
Calories 3kcal
Author Sumit Malhotra

Ingredients

  • 1 tbsp Black Peppercorns
  • 1.5 tbsp Dried Oregano Leaves
  • 1/3 tsp Sea Salt
  • 2 piece Crushed Garlic Cloves

Instructions

  • Combine peppercorns, oregano, sea salt, and garlic in a dry grinder or spice grinder.
  • Pulse 8 to 12 times or until the mixture is coarsely to finely ground.
  • Coat the meat liberally and rest for 2 hours for flavours to infuse well.

Black pepper for immunity

What are the side effects of black pepper or kali mirch?

What are the risks associated with black pepper or kali mirch?

Kali mirch or black pepper is unlikely to cause any sort of harm when consumed in smaller quantities.

Black pepper is found to cause stomach burns when taken in large quantities. When large quantities of black pepper enter the lungs, it may cause death.

Black pepper is known to cause burning sensation inside the stomach in certain people, and they should check the quantity of black pepper being consumed before discarding it fully.

FINALLY, TO SUM IT UP

All About Black pepper or Kali mirch | Uses & Benefits of Kali mirch

Health benefits of black pepper or kali mirch

Black Pepper also known as “The King of Spices” is a commonly & widely used spice used in cuisines world over.

It’s indigenous to the rain forests of Kerala is also known as “the Black Gold”. It is still dried in direct sunlight.

The fruit or berries in the dried stage are known as peppercorns and that’s used as a spice, medicine and seasoning. After drying it’s consumed in the raw form by grinding peppercorns.

It has a sharp and mildly spicy flavour that goes well with many dishes. Ground, dried, and cooked peppercorns have been used since antiquity, both for flavour and as a traditional medicine.

Traditional Ayurvedic medicine has been using black pepper for thousands of years due to its high concentration of potent, beneficial plant compounds.

Black pepper is native to present-day Kerala, a state on the southwestern coast of India, and is extensively cultivated there and in other tropical regions.

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