Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (Persian: یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030), usually known as Mahmud of Ghazni or Mahmud Ghaznavi (Persian: محمود غزنوی), was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 998 to 1030.
At the time of his death, his kingdom had been transformed into an extensive military empire, which extended from northwestern Iran proper to Punjab in the Indian subcontinent, Khwarazm in Transoxiana, and Makran.
Mahmud continued the bureaucratic, political, and cultural customs of his predecessors, the Samanids. He established the ground for a future Persianate state in Punjab, particularly centred on Lahore, a city he conquered.
His capital of Ghazni evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual centre in the Islamic world, almost rivalling the important city of Baghdad. The capital appealed to many prominent figures, such as al-Biruni and Ferdowsi.