Haryana is a North Indian state surrounding New Delhi on 3 sides. The Yamuna River runs along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Shared with Punjab, the state capital Chandigarh is known for its modernist buildings and gridlike street plan designed by Swiss architect, Le Corbusier.
The state houses several sites from the Indus Valley Civilization, which was a cradle of civilization. In the Mahabharata, Haryana is mentioned as Bahudanayak Region.
Haryana has been ruled by Gupta Empire, Pushyabhuti dynasty, Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, Tomara Dynasty, Chahamanas of Shakambhari, Ghurid Dynasty, Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Durrani Empire, Maratha Empire, (George Thomas), Gwalior State, Company Rule in India and British Raj.
During Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, Haryana was known as Delhi Subah. Many historically significant battles have been fought in it such as Battle of Tarain, Battle of Panipat, and Battle of Karnal.
After the Mughals, Haryana became Maratha Empire possession. After the treaty of Surji-Anjangaon of 1803, Haryana (Hurrianah) was annexed by the British Empire and was later merged with North West Provinces. After revolt of 1857, in April 1858 Haryana, then known as Delhi Territory, was merged with Punjab Province as a punishment.
During the British Colonial period, from 1858 to 1947 it was administered as a part of the Punjab province. It became a separate administrative state of India in 1966. Chandigarh is the joint capital for the states of Punjab and Haryana.
History of human presence in Haryana dates back to 100,000 years ago. Archaeologists discovered cave paintings and tools in Mangar Bani hill forest in May 2021; the cave paintings are estimated to be 100,000 years old. These are believed to be the largest in the Indian subcontinent and possibly the world’s oldest.
The Vedic land of Haryana has been a cradle of Indian culture and civilization. Indian traditions regard this region as the matrix of creation of northern altar’ where Brahma performed the pristine sacrifice and created the universe.
This theory of creation has been confirmed to a large extent by archaeological investigations carried out by Guy E. Pilgrim in 1915, who has established that 15 million years ago, early man lived in the Haryana Shivaliks.
The Vamana Purana states that King Kuru ploughed the field of Kurukshetra with a golden ploughshare drawn by the Nandi of Lord Shiva and reclaimed an area of seven Kosas.
Replete with myths, legends and vedic references, Haryana’s past is steeped in glory. It was on this soil that saint Ved Vyas wrote Mahabharata. It was here, 5,000 long years ago that Lord Krishna preached the gospel of duty to Arjuna at the on set of the great battle of Mahabharata, making Haryana the birthplace of Gita.